As you may have heard or noticed, the Internet is running out of addresses. It’s time to upgrade from the 35 years old IPv4 protocol, which doesn’t even have a single public address per human on the earth, to the brand new (?) IPv6, which offers enough addresses for every grain of sand in the known universe, or something like that.
SWITCH is a pioneer in IPv6 adoption, and has been supporting IPv6 on all network connections and most services in parallel with IPv4 (“dual stack”) for many years.
To our embarrassment, we hadn’t been able to integrate IPv6 support into SWITCHengines from the start. While OpenStack had some IPv6 support, the implementation wasn’t mature, and we didn’t know how to fit it into our network model in a user-friendly way.
IPv6: “On by default” and globally routable
About a month ago we took a big step to change this: IPv6 is now enabled by default for all instances on the shared internal network (“private”). So if you have an instance running on SWITCHengines, and it isn’t connected to a tenant network of your own, then the instance probably has an IPv6 address right now, in addition to the IPv4 address(es) it always had. Note that this is true even for instances that were created or last rebooted before we turned on IPv6. On Linux-derived systems you can check using ifconfig eth0 or ip -6 addr list dev eth0; if you see an address that starts with 2001:620:5ca1:, then your instance can speak IPv6.
Note that these IPv6 addresses are “globally unique” and routable, i.e. they are recognized by the general Internet. In contrast, the IPv4 addresses on the default network are “private” and can only be used locally inside the cloud; communication with the general Internet requires Network Address Translation (NAT).
What you can do with an IPv6 address
Your instance will now be able to talk to other Internet hosts over IPv6. For example, try ping6 mirror.switch.ch or traceroute6 www.facebook.com. This works just like IPv4, except that only a subset of hosts on the Internet speaks IPv6 yet. Fortunately, this subset already includes important services and is growing. Because IPv6 doesn’t need NAT, routing between your instances and the Internet is less resource-intensive and a tiny bit faster than with IPv4.
But you will also be able to accept connections from other Internet hosts over IPv6. This is different from before: To accept connections over IPv4, you need(ed) a separate public address, a Floating IP in OpenStack terminology. So if you can get by with IPv6, for example because you only need (SSH or other) access from hosts that have IPv6, then you don’t need to reserve a Floating IP anymore. This saves you not just work but also money—public IPv4 addresses are scarce, so we need to charge a small “rent” for each Floating IP reserved. IPv6 addresses are plentiful, so we don’t charge for them.
But isn’t this dangerous?
Instances are now globally reachable by default, but they are still protected by OpenStack’s Security Groups (corresponding to packet filters or access control lists). The default Security Group only allows outbound connections: Your instance can connect to servers elsewhere, but attempts to connect to your instance will be blocked. You have probably opened some ports such as TCP port 22 (for SSH) or 80 or 443 (for HTTP/HTTPS) by adding corresponding rules to your own Security Groups. In these rules, you need to specify address “prefixes” specifying where you want to accept traffic from. These prefixes can be IPv4 or IPv6—if you want to accept both, you need two rules.
If you want to accept traffic from anywhere, your rules will contain 0.0.0.0/0 as the prefix. To accept IPv6 traffic as well, simply add identical rules with ::/0 as the prefix instead—this is the IPv6 version of the “global” prefix.
What about domain names?
These IPv6 addresses can be entered in the DNS using “AAAA” records. For Floating IPs, we provided pre-registered hostnames of the form fl-34-56.zhdk.cloud.switch.ch. We cannot do that in IPv6, because there are just too many possible addresses. If you require your IPv6 address to map back to a hostname, please let us know and we can add it manually.
OpenStack will learn how to (optionally) register such hostnames in the DNS automatically; but that feature was only added to the latest release (“Mitaka”), and it will be several months before we can deploy this in SWITCHengines.
We would like to also offer IPv6 connectivity to user-created “tenant networks”. Our version of OpenStack almost supports this, but it cannot be fully automated yet. If you need IPv6 on your non-shared network right now, please let us know via the normal support channel, and we’ll set something up manually. But eventually (hopefully soon), getting a globally routable IPv6 prefix for your network should be (almost) as easy as getting a globally routable Floating IP is now.
You can also expect services running on SWITCHengines (SWITCHdrive, SWITCHfilesender and more) to become exposed over IPv6 over the next couple of months. Stay tuned!